Here is your SHAB TECHNOLOGY PLANET customized technology news for April 14, 2021.

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Dear esteem reader,

Here is your SHAB TECHNOLOGY PLANET customized technology news for April 14, 2021.

Spotlight Stories Headlines

T.P.E.A.N

πŸ—ž TECHNOLOGY NEWSπŸ’»πŸ”§πŸ–₯:

DeepONet: A DEEP NEURAL NETWORK-BASED MODEL TO APPROXIMATE LINEAR AND NONLINEAR OPERATORS

Artificial neural networks are known to be highly efficient approximators of continuous functions, which are functions with no sudden changes in values (i.e., discontinuities, holes or jumps in graph representations). While many studies have explored the use of neural networks for approximating continuous functions, their ability to approximate nonlinear operators has rarely been investigated so far.

ARTIFICIAL NERVOUS SYSTEM USES LIGHT SENSING TO CATCH OBJECTS LIKE HUMANS DO

With a simple artificial nervous system now able to mimic human responses to light, scientists are learning more about how to program such technology for use in medical robotic prostheses.

ONE-STOP MACHINE LEARNING PLATFORM TURNS HEALTH CARE DATA INTO INSIGHTS

Over the past decade, hospitals and other health care providers have put massive amounts of time and energy into adopting electronic health care records, turning hastily scribbled doctors’ notes into durable sources of information. But collecting these data is less than half the battle. It can take even more time and effort to turn these records into actual insights—ones that use the learnings of the past to inform future decisions.

πŸ—ž PHYSICS NEWSβš™β™¨:

SCIENTISTS DISCOVER THREE LIQUID PHASES IN AEROSOL PARTICLES

Researchers at the University of British Columbia have discovered three liquid phases in aerosol particles, changing our understanding of air pollutants in the Earth’s atmosphere.

TOPOLOGICAL INSULATOR METAMATERIAL WITH GIANT CIRCULAR PHOTOGALVANIC EFFECT

Topological insulators have notable manifestations of electronic properties. The helicity-dependent photocurrents in such devices are underpinned by spin momentum-locking of surface Dirac electrons that are weak and easily overshadowed by bulk contributions. In a new report now published on Science Advances, X. Sun and a research team in photonic technologies, physics and photonic metamaterials in Singapore and the U.K. showed how the chiral response of materials could be enhanced via nanostructuring. The tight confinement of electromagnetic fields in the resonant nanostructures enhanced the photoexcitation of spin-polarized surface states of a topological insulator to allow an 11-fold increase of the circular photogalvanic effect and a previously unobserved photocurrent dichroism at room temperature. Using this method, Sun et al. controlled the spin transport in topological materials via structural design, a hitherto unrecognized ability of metamaterials. The work bridges the gap between nanophotonics and spin electronics to provide opportunities to develop polarization-sensitive photodetectors.

πŸ—ž EARTH NEWS🌏:

PLASTIC PLANET: TRACKING PERVASIVE MICROPLASTICS ACROSS THE GLOBE

Really big systems, like ocean currents and weather, work on really big scales. And so too does your plastic waste, according to new research from Janice Brahney from the Department of Watershed Sciences. The plastic straw you discarded in 1980 hasn’t disappeared; it has fragmented into pieces too small to see, and is cycling through the atmosphere, infiltrating soil, ocean waters and air. Microplastics are so pervasive that they now affect how plants grow, waft through the air we breathe, and permeate distant ecosystems. They can be found in places as varied as the human bloodstream to the guts of insects in Antarctica.

NEW STUDY: THICK SEA-ICE WARMS GREENLAND FJORDS

A new study led by Stockholm University Assistant Professor Christian Stranne shows that thick sea ice outside the fjords can actually increase the sensitivity of Greenlandic fjords to warming. Stranne and a team of researchers from Sweden, Greenland, the Netherlands, the U.S. and Canada have reported on expeditions to two distinct fjords in northern Greenland during the 2015 and 2019 summers.

UPWARD LIGHTNING TAKES ITS CUE FROM NEARBY LIGHTNING EVENTS

In the chaos of a thunderstorm, upward moving lightning occasionally springs from the tops of tall structures. Scientists don’t fully understand how upward lightning is triggered; it is likely a combination of multiple environmental factors, such as the background electric field and the structure’s height. In a new study, Sunjerga et al. investigate how ambient lightning events near tall structures may trigger upward lightning.

πŸ—ž ASTRONOMY & SPACE NEWSπŸŒͺπŸŽ‡:

SOVIET COSMONAUT MADE PIONEERING SPACEFLIGHT 60 YEARS AGO

Crushed into the pilot’s seat by heavy G-forces, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin saw flames outside his spacecraft and prepared to die. His voice broke the tense silence at ground control: “I’m burning. Goodbye, comrades.”

27 MILLION GALAXY MORPHOLOGIES QUANTIFIED AND CATALOGED WITH THE HELP OF MACHINE LEARNING

Research from Penn’s Department of Physics and Astronomy has produced the largest catalog of galaxy morphology classification to date. Led by former postdocs Jesús Vega-Ferrero and Helena Domínguez Sánchez, who worked with professor Mariangela Bernardi, this catalog of 27 million galaxy morphologies provides key insights into the evolution of the universe. The study was published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

FIVE THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT GAGARIN’S JOURNEY TO SPACE

Sixty years ago on Monday cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person in space, securing victory for Moscow in its race with Washington and marking a new chapter in the history of space exploration.

πŸ—ž NANOTECHNOLOGY NEWSβ›„β˜ƒ:

FOLLOWING ATOMS IN REAL TIME COULD LEAD TO BETTER MATERIALS DESIGN

Researchers have used a technique similar to MRI to follow the movement of individual atoms in real time as they cluster together to form two-dimensional materials, which are a single atomic layer thick.

BETTER METRIC FOR THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS MEANS BETTER DESIGN STRATEGIES

Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have shown that a quantity known as thermoelectric conductivity is an effective measure for the dimensionality of newly developed thermoelectric nanomaterials. Studying films of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes and atomically thin sheets of molybdenum sulfide and graphene, they found clear distinctions in how this number varies with conductivity, in agreement with theoretical predictions in 1D and 2D materials. Such a metric promises better design strategies for thermoelectric materials.

CENTRIFUGAL MULTISPUN NANOFIBERS PUT A NEW SPIN ON COVID-19 MASKS

KAIST researchers have developed a novel nanofiber production technique called ‘centrifugal multispinning’ that will open the door for the safe and cost-effective mass production of high-performance polymer nanofibers. This new technique, which has shown up to a 300 times higher nanofiber production rate per hour than that of the conventional electrospinning method, has many potential applications including the development of face mask filters for coronavirus protection.

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