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Dear esteem reader,
Here is your SHAB TECHNOLOGY PLANET customized technology news for November 12, 2020.
Spotlight Stories Headlines
? TECHNOLOGY NEWS???:
*Machine learning advances materials for separations, adsorption and catalysis*
An artificial intelligence technique—machine learning—is helping accelerate the development of highly tunable materials known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that have important applications in chemical separations, adsorption, catalysis, and sensing.
*Smart devices to schedule electricity use may prevent blackouts*
Power plants generate electricity and send it into power lines that distribute energy to nodes, or sites, where it can be used. But if the electricity load is more than the system’s capacity, transmission can fail, leading to a cascade of failures throughout the electric grid.
*Skills development in Physical AI could give birth to lifelike intelligent robots*
The research suggests that teaching materials science, mechanical engineering, computer science, biology and chemistry as a combined discipline could help students develop the skills they need to create lifelike artificially intelligent (AI) robots as researchers
? PHYSICS NEWS⚙♨:
*Bioinspired metagel with broadband tunable impedance matching*
Impedance matching is a concept that can maximize energy transmission from a source through a media, and is established across electrical, acoustic and optical engineering. It is frequently necessary to match a load impedance to the source or internal impedance of a driving source. The existing design to facilitate acoustic impedance matching is fundamentally limited by narrowband transmission (data transfer with a slow or small transfer rate). In a new report now published on Science Advances, Erqian Dong and a research team in China and the U.S. detailed a previously unknown class of bioinspired metagel impedance transformers to bypass the existing limits, by developing a transformer embedded in a metamaterial matrix of steel cylinders within hydrogel. The team then theoretically analyzed broadband transmission after introducing bioinspired acoustic impedance (the product of the density of porous media through which a sound wave travels and the velocity of the sound wave) and conducted experiments with the device to show efficient implementation of the metagel during underwater ultrasound detection experiments. The experimental construct maintained a soft, tunable composition and will pave a new and unexpected way to design next-generation broadband impedance matching devices for diverse wave-engineering applications.
*Improving high-energy lithium-ion batteries with carbon filler*
Lithium-ion batteries are the major rechargeable power source for many portable devices as well as electric vehicles, but their use is limited, because they do not provide high power output while simultaneously allowing reversible energy storage. Research reported in Applied Physics Reviews aims to offer a solution by showing how the inclusion of conductive fillers improves battery performance.
*New airflow videos show why masks with exhalation valves do not slow the spread of COVID*
Many people wear masks in public to slow the spread of COVID-19, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, masks with exhalation valves do not slow the spread of the disease, and now, new videos from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) show why.
? EARTH NEWS?:
*New research identifies ‘triple trouble’ for mangrove coasts*
Some of the world’s most valuable ecosystems are facing a “triple threat” to their long-term durability and survival, new research shows.
*Study reveals patterns that shape forest recovery after wildfires*
New University of Montana research suggests recurring continent-spanning drought patterns set the tempo for forest recovery from wildfire.
*Large volcanic eruption caused the largest mass extinction*
Researchers in Japan, the US and China say they have found more concrete evidence of the volcanic cause of the largest mass extinction of life. Their research looked at two discrete eruption events: one that was previously unknown to researchers, and the other that resulted in large swaths of terrestrial and marine life going extinct.
? ASTRONOMY & SPACE NEWS??:
*Mining rocks in orbit could aid deep space exploration*
The first mining experiments conducted in space could pave the way for new technologies to help humans explore and establish settlements on distant worlds, a study suggests.
*Researchers model source of eruption on Jupiter’s moon Europa*
On Jupiter’s icy moon Europa, powerful eruptions may spew into space, raising questions among hopeful astrobiologists on Earth: What would blast out from miles-high plumes? Could they contain signs of extraterrestrial life? And where in Europa would they originate? A new explanation now points to a source closer to the frozen surface than might be expected.
*Radioactive elements may be crucial to the habitability of rocky planets*
The amount of long-lived radioactive elements incorporated into a rocky planet as it forms may be a crucial factor in determining its future habitability, according to a new study by an interdisciplinary team of scientists at UC Santa Cruz.
? NANOTECHNOLOGY NEWS⛄☃:
*Making 3-D nanosuperconductors with DNA*
Three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructured materials—those with complex shapes at a size scale of billionths of a meter—that can conduct electricity without resistance could be used in a range of quantum devices. For example, such 3-D superconducting nanostructures could find application in signal amplifiers to enhance the speed and accuracy of quantum computers and ultrasensitive magnetic field sensors for medical imaging and subsurface geology mapping. However, traditional fabrication tools such as lithography have been limited to 1-D and 2-D nanostructures like superconducting wires and thin films.
*Nanomedicine crosses into brain, eradicates recurring brain cancer in mice*
A new synthetic protein nanoparticle capable of slipping past the nearly impermeable blood-brain barrier could deliver cancer-killing drugs directly to malignant brain tumors, new research from the University of Michigan shows.
*Scientists use bacteria as micro-3-D printers*
A team at Aalto University has used bacteria to produce intricately designed three-dimensional objects made of nanocellulose. With their technique, the researchers are able to guide the growth of bacterial colonies through the use of strongly water repellent—or superhydrophobic—surfaces. The objects show tremendous potential for medical use, including supporting tissue regeneration or as scaffolds to replace damaged organs. The results have been published in the journal ACS Nano.
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